Several attempts have been made in the past to breed biotin overproduction strains. Decarboxylation is the process that activates compounds in cannabis such as THC. Also on the gas exchanges, a significant influence of the phosphate fertilization was observed under the cowpea plants, so that the plants that received more phosphorus obtained higher rates of [CO.sub.2] assimilation, greater stomatal conductance and transpiration rates, and instantaneous efficiency of the carboxylation, independent of the salinity level studied (Figure 3A, B, C and D). The common metabolic feature of these disorders, lactic acidosis, may be very important in causing the acute neurological dysfunction. Don’t worry, this isn’t going to be a long rant on language. Moore, in Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry III, 2008. The molecule has three asymmetric centers and, thus, can occur in eight stereoisomeric forms, only one of which (the 3aS, 4S, 6aR isomer, d-(+)-biotin) has the full vitamin H activity. Equation 1. D. Nohr, ... E.I. Similarly, sinalexin has been implicated in the defense mechanisms of white mustard Sinapis alba <2001PNA747>. The use of CO2 directly as a raw material to form chemical building blocks or biological polymers in order to fix CO2 and counter the effects of global warming due to the excess release of CO2 into the atmosphere should also be considered as an emerging reaction in the future. Abundant substrates and conventional biosynthetic reactions are involved in these steps. The term "decarboxylation" usually means replacement of a carboxyl group (-COOH) with a hydrogen atom: Decarboxylation is one of the oldest known organic reactions. Pimeloyl-CoA is derived by the BioW catalyzed reaction. The adequate daily intake level of biotin for adults is 30 μg from dietary sources. In B. subtilis pimelic acid is supplied by cytochrome P450 depending BioI via in-chain cleavage of fatty acids. Different compounds decarb at slightly different temperatures and of course, there is a “point of diminishing returns” when too much heat actually starts to degrade the product. In chemistry, the term carbonation is sometimes used synonymously with carboxylation, especially when applied to the reaction of carbanionic reagents with CO 2. The activated CO is then transferred from carboxybiotin to the substrate. THC and CBD are the neutral forms of THCA and CBDA. Two transition states corresponding to indirect and direct keto-enol routes are possible, with energies of 93 and 104 kJ/mol. Decarboxylations are the bases of many named reactions. The history of biotin dates back until 1901 when Wildiers discovered that S. cerevisiae required more than yeast ash, an ammonium salt, and a fermentable sugar for growth as postulated by Pasteur. The amount of THCA does not convert to an equivalent amount of THC after decarboxylation — the conversion rate is around 0.88 per cent. The recent insights into the BioB catalyzed reaction, however, might provide novel clues how to engineer this peculiar reaction for higher efficiency, which is the key requirement for a superior microbial biotin process. The lengthy, multistep process including an optical separation step is, despite the various process improvements achieved over the years, still very costly. Recently, some additional functions of biotin have been found: it induces dermal differentiation and has been used to treat lameness in animals and brittle nails in humans. Carboxylation results in the formation of Carboxylic acid. Lee SH, Davis EJ. The adverse component in egg white is avidin with an extremely high affinity to biotin causing biotin starvation in the target animal if overdosed. The decarboxylation can be depicted as such: Common biosynthetic oxidative decarboxylations of amino acids to amines are: Other decarboxylation reactions from the citric acid cycle include: Upon heating, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid decarboxylates to give the psychoactive compound Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol. 13.5A: The metabolic context of carboxylation and decarboxylation Some of the most important carbon-carbon bond-forming and bond-breaking processes in biological chemistry involve the gain or loss, by an organic molecule, of a single carbon in the form of CO 2. The complete replacement of petroleum-based chemicals by renewable sources is a subject of intense debate and is closely linked to the issue of biofuels. The relevance of biotin as an indispensable nutritional factor for mammals became clear, when György discovered in 1940 that biotin was identical to vitamin H. The latter had been described as a factor present in various foodstuffs and in yeast, which prevented a pellagra-like condition evoked in rats that were fed with high doses of egg white. Additionally, patent applications have been disclosed describing (1) thienopyrazoles as (i) kinase inhibitors <2003WO101968, 2005USP026984, 2006EP1711177>, (ii) interleukin-2 inducible tyrosine kinase (ITK) inhibitors (e.g., 322) <2005WO026175>, and (iii) selective inhibitors of PDE7 (e.g., 323) < 2006WO004040>; (2) thienothiazoles as components in guest–host liquid crystal display devices (e.g., 324 <2000USP6039893>; (3) pyrrolo[2,3-b]thiazole and pyrrolo[3,2-d]thiazoles as inhibitors of human casein kinase Iε in the phosphorylation of the human clock protein period (hPER) for use in treating central nervous system diseases, mood and sleep disorders (e.g., 325 and 326) <2006WO021000>; (4) thienoimidazoles, as angiotensin II antagonists (e.g., 327 and 328) <1995USP5463073>; and, (5) pyrroloimidazole derivatives as nootropic agents <2005EP1608655>. Causing the acute neurological dysfunction as decarboxylation, may be very important in causing acute. 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